Our health is directly related to the health of the environment we live in
by United Nations News, agencies
Taking on environmental health risks, UN agencies aim to protect ''foundations for life'' on Earth.
Two United Nations agencies are teaming up in a major new initiative taking on the herculean task of combatting environmental health risks, which claim an estimated 12.6 million lives a year.
The partnership, between the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Health Organization (WHO), includes specific action to address air pollution, climate change and antimicrobial resistance as well as improve coordination on waste and chemicals management, water quality, and food and nutrition issues.
“Our health is directly related to the health of the environment we live in. Together, air, water and chemical hazards kill some 12.6 million people a year. This cannot and must not continue,” said Tedros Ghebreyesus, the Director-General of WHO, in a news release announcing the undertaking.
“There is an urgent need for us to work more closely together to address the critical threats to environmental sustainability and climate – which are the foundations for life on this planet. This new agreement recognizes that sober reality,” added Erik Solheim, the Executive Director of UNEP.
The new collaboration has a particular focus on the developing world as the worst impacts of environmental pollution and the related deaths occur in developing countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America.
The initiative also includes joint management of the BreatheLife advocacy campaign to reduce air pollution for multiple climate, environment and health benefits.
The two UN agencies have been cooperating in a range of health and environment areas. The latest partnership is the most significant formal agreement on joint action across the breadth of environment and health issues in over 15 years, the agencies added. http://bit.ly/2EFhpHa http://breathelife2030.org/
Millions of babies risk brain damage from breathing toxic air, UNICEF warns.
Almost 17 million babies live in areas where air pollution is at least six times higher than international limits, causing them to breathe toxic air and potentially risking their brain development, according to a new paper released on Tuesday by the United Nations Children''s Fund (UNICEF).
Danger in the Air, notes that breathing in particulate air pollution can damage brain tissue and undermine cognitive development – with lifelong implications and setbacks.
“Not only do pollutants harm babies'' developing lungs – they can permanently damage their developing brains – and, thus, their futures,” said UNICEF Executive Director Anthony Lake.
Satellite imagery reveals that South Asia has the largest proportion of babies under the age of one living in the worst-affected areas, with 12.2 million babies residing where outdoor air pollution exceeds six times international limits set by the World Health Organization (WHO). The East Asia and Pacific region is home to some 4.3 million babies living in areas that exceed six times the limit.
“Protecting children from air pollution not only benefits children. It also benefits their societies – realized in reduced health care costs, increased productivity and a safer, cleaner environment for everyone,” he stressed.
The paper shows that air pollution, like inadequate nutrition and stimulation, and exposure to violence during the critical first 1,000 days of life, can affect the development of their growing brains.
It explains that ultrafine pollution particles are so small that they can enter the blood stream, travel to the brain, and damage the blood-brain barrier, which can cause neuro-inflammation.
Some pollution particles can cause neurodegenerative diseases while others can damage brain areas for learning and development.
A young child''s brain is vulnerable: by a smaller dosage of toxic chemicals, as compared to an adult''s; as they breathe more rapidly; and because their physical defences and immunities are not fully developed.
The paper outlines urgent steps to reduce the impact of air pollution on babies'' growing brains, including immediate actions for parents to decrease children''s exposure at home to harmful fumes produced by tobacco products, cook stoves and heating fires.
It also suggests investing in cleaner, renewable sources of energy to replace fossil fuel combustion; provide affordable access to public transport; increase green spaces in urban areas; and provide better waste management options to prevent open burning of harmful chemicals.
Danger in the Air advises reducing children''s exposure to pollutants by traveling during lower air pollution times of the day; providing appropriately fitting air filtration masks, in extreme cases; and creating smart urban planning so that major sources of pollution are not located near schools, clinics or hospitals.
It further recommends improving children''s overall health to bolster their resilience, and promotes exclusive breastfeeding and good nutrition.
Finally, as reducing children''s exposure begins with understanding the quality of air they are breathing, the report endorses improved knowledge and monitoring of air pollution.
“No child should have to breathe dangerously polluted air – and no society can afford to ignore air pollution,” Mr. Lake concluded. http://bit.ly/2ixU7tP http://uni.cf/2kpw2ti
Parts of the Earth to become uninhabitable within 50 years
by Earth Institute at Columbia University, agencies
27 Dec. 2017
High humidity will magnify the effects of rising heat from South America to India, affecting people''s ability to work and even survive, unless greenhouse gas emissions are substantially cut in coming decades, according to U.S. researchers.
Heat remains underestimated as a threat by governments, aid agencies and individuals, and muggy heat is even more oppressive than the "dry" kind, because it stops people from sweating which takes away excess heat.
A new study from the Earth Institute at Columbia University found areas along the coast and others that experience humid-weather patterns will be most affected by higher temperatures unless governments curb greenhouse gas emissions that can raise temperatures and put in place measures to tackle the heat.
The areas likely to be affected include the Amazon, southeastern United States, western and central Africa, parts of the Middle East, northern India and eastern China.
Current and projected "wet bulb" temperatures - which reflect the combined effects of heat and humidity - found that by the 2070s, high wet-bulb readings that now occur maybe once a year could prevail 100-250 days of the year in some parts.
"The conditions we''re talking about basically never occur now - people in most places have never experienced them," said lead author Ethan Coffel at Columbia''s Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory.
"Failure to adopt both mitigation and adaptation measures is likely to result in suffering, economic damage, and increased heat-related mortality."
Rising temperatures may make low-latitude developing nations in the Asian subcontinent, the Middle East, Africa and South America practically uninhabitable during the summer months, another report earlier this year noted.
With muggy heat, the air is already heavy with moisture, so sweat stops evaporating, halting a process to cool the body. If there is no air conditioning, organs strain and can start to fail.
This can lead to lethargy, sickness and, in the worst conditions, death, according to the new study.
The study projects parts of the Middle East and northern India may hit 35 wet-bulb degrees Celsius by late century - equal to the skin''s temperature, and the theoretical limit at which people will die within hours without artificial cooling.
"It''s not just about the heat.. it''s about how many people are poor, how many are old, who has to go outside to work, who has air conditioning," said Alex de Sherbinin at Columbia''s Center for International Earth Science Information Network.
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