Food security and gender equality are inextricably interlinked
by Lakshmi Puri, Deputy Director UN Women
12:38pm 14th Oct, 2017
The 16th of October marks World Food Day, a reminder to the international community of the importance of treating food security as a 21st Century priority if sustainable development, peace and security and the realisation of human rights are to be achieved.
When we think and act on food security we must think and act on gender equality and women’s empowerment, as women are not only the ones most affected by food insecurity but are charged with the food and nutrition responsibilities for families and communities in the entire food value chain from growing the crops to bringing food to the table.
Rapid population growth, the slowdown of the global economy, commodity price volatility, the speculative aspects of the trade in food commodity futures, and distortive agricultural and trade policies are compounding factors for continuing food insecurity and hunger. The latest estimates indicate that over 800 million people were undernourished globally in 2016.
Bio-fuel production with its rising pressure on land and natural resources as well as climate change, are adding to the volatility of food prices and the urgency to find solutions for food insecurity.
Food security and gender equality and women’s empowerment are inextricably interlinked. Women are pivotal to addressing hunger, malnutrition and poverty especially in developing countries. They comprise an average of 43 per cent of the agricultural labour force across the developing world making up the backbone of the agricultural sector and food production systems and the bulk of the agricultural labourers. Eight out of ten agricultural workers in Africa are women and in Asia six out of ten are women. Rural women also represent approximately two thirds of the 400 million poor livestock keepers.
Women are on the front line of nutrition as care givers in the family — producing, storing, cleaning, cooking food for consumption – and ensuring that food, when available, reaches children first. Women play a crucial role in ensuring the health of children.
Nearly half of all deaths of children under the age of five are attributable to undernutrition. Anemia, caused by poor nutrition and deficiencies of iron and other micronutrients, affects 42 per cent of all pregnant women globally and contributes to maternal mortality and low birth weight.
It is therefore even more inexcusable that women continue to face many barriers and constraints including limited access to assets and resources necessary for food security as well as disproportionately bearing the impact of food insecurity. It is estimated that 60 percent of the world’s chronically hungry people are women and girls.
Women and girls are impacted disproportionately from food insecurity and experience undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies. Women face higher barriers than men to productive resources, economic opportunities, and decision-making, that would help alleviate food insecurity. For farming women, the lack of access to agricultural inputs, services, credit, and markets constrain agricultural productivity growth and agricultural production, making the arduous pathway out of poverty especially difficult.
In sub-Saharan Africa, the productivity levels of female workers in agriculture are between 20 and 30 per cent lower than those of male workers, purely because of the gender gap in access to resources.
Moreover, food preferences, taboos and consumption patterns give rise to differential gender outcomes on food security, as men and boys get preferential food access. In times of food scarcity, women tend to eat last and least.
Women’s participation in decision making processes and in the leadership of rural institutions remains low – which has led to women’s rights, contributions and priorities to be largely overlooked by mainstream policies and institutions on agriculture, food security and nutrition.
Gender inequalities in the distribution of unpaid care work both in developed and in developing countries continue to deprive women from opportunities for paid work, education, and political participation, all of which have a bearing on their food security and nutrition.
It is therefore clear that achieving sustainable development and peace and security will continue to challenge humanity if gender disparities in agriculture, food security and nutrition remain unaddressed.
This year’s World Food Day should therefore be a reminder that empowering women and unleashing their untapped potential to increase agricultural production is critical to the achievement of improved food and nutrition security, in improving rural livelihoods and in generating income and overall well-being of their households and communities.
The inextricable links between gender equality and food security have gained greater momentum in the international agenda. In 1995 the Beijing Platform for Action recognized that women were key to reducing poverty and ensuring food security.
The Platform for Action called upon Member States and all stakeholders to formulate and implement policies and programmes that enhance women’s access to financial, technical, extension and marketing services. It also highlighted the need to improve women’s access to and control over land and appropriate financing, infrastructure and technology.
The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development recognized that both Goal 2 for food security and ending hunger, and Goal 5 for gender equality and the empowerment of all women and girls are mutually reinforcing and enabling factors in the overall achievement of sustainable development.
Many cross-cutting targets in terms of both gender equality and food security include ending hunger and addressing the nutritional needs of adolescent girls, pregnant and lactating women (SDG 2.2), eliminating discrimination against women in laws, policy and practice (SDG 5.1).
The 2030 Agenda also recognizes that women’s empowerment and control over resources reinforces the nutritional health of their children (SDG 2.1).
The 2030 Agenda recognizes one specific group of women whose rights to economic resources must be enhanced (SDG 5.a.) is small-scale women food producers. Ensuring women’s rights and improving their access to land, resources and incomes (SDGs 2.3 and 1.4) will be critical to achieving a number of goals.
The Agreed Conclusions of the 61st Session of Commission on the Status of Women (March 2017) recognized the crucial role that rural women in particular have in food security, particularly in poor and vulnerable households and how it is essential to achieve rural women’s empowerment as well as their full, equal and effective participation at all levels of decision making.
Interventions on the ground aimed at enhancing agricultural productivity must focus on the protagonists of agriculture, who are mainly women in many rural contexts.
The international community needs to recognize not only that women are on the front lines of food security, but that their needs and rights must be placed at the forefront of trade and agricultural policies and investments if sustainable development and peace and security are to be realized.
Today it is more evident than ever that closing the gender gap in agricultural productivity could potentially lift millions out of poverty and address losses in economic growth opportunities.
Bold and decisive action is critical to end the discrimination faced by women not only as a matter of justice and equality; but also to tackle the factors that are holding back agricultural production.
Stability in the food market depends on increased investment in agriculture, particularly in developing countries, where 98 percent of the hungry live and where food production needs to double by 2050 to feed growing populations.
Strengthening support and investment in the agricultural sector, should go in hand with acknowledging women’s contributions to food security and ensuring their equal rights and equal access to resources, assets and opportunities.
Measures to advance towards this aim include supporting the contributions of rural women and women farmers and ensuring that they have equal access to agricultural technologies, through investments, innovation in small-scale agricultural production and distribution.
This in turn must be supported through policies that improve productive capacity and strengthen their resilience, addressing the existing gaps in and barriers to trading their agricultural products in local, regional and international markets.
Better disaggregated data that shows where in the food systems women are, as well as their situation in terms of food security and nutrition is also urgently needed.
Gender differences in land tenure and access to productive resources are particularly relevant as rural women are significant contributors to global food production. We must ensure rural women’s full and equal rights to land and inheritance, land tenure security, common property and common resources and equal access to justice and legal support, by designing, reforming and enforcing relevant laws and policies.
Control over and ownership of assets can provide women with greater protection and stronger fallback positions, enhancing their bargaining power within the household and their capacity for economic independence. We must also promote women’s involvement in climate-resilient agriculture as farmers, workers, agriculture and food entrepreneurs.
All these efforts require transformative financing and investment, both targeted and mainstreamed, and also advocacy and support from all stakeholders. Countries, UN agencies, civil society and the private sector should take new and concrete actions for the full and accelerated implementation of the gender equality international commitments.
It is equally crucial to engage with grassroots women organisations and rural women organisations in the implementation of these commitments.
We must work to ensure equal access to and control over productive resources, the provision of quality basic services and infrastructure, and support women smallholder farmers to improve productivity and the resilience of food supplies. So that women are able to reach their potential as key game changers in realizing greater food and nutrition security.
At the current 72nd session of the UN General Assembly these issues will be addressed by the international community and the global norms, standards and policy commitments to gender equality and the empowerment of women as a precondition and objective of food security for all will be in stark focus.
The recent report of the UN Secretary-General on the improvement of the situation of women and girls in rural areas highlights the challenges faced by women and girls in rural areas, especially the poorest and most marginalized. The report’s recommendations cover in particular economic and social policies, ending violence against women and girls, education, health, land, inheritance and property rights, decent work and social protection, labour-saving infrastructure and technology.
The upcoming 62nd Session of the UN Commission on the Status of Women with its priority theme of ‘challenges and opportunities in achieving gender equality and the empowerment of rural women and girls,’ highlights a determination to make the universe of food, nutrition and agriculture empowering for women and girls.
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